1) Do I need a swap partition (I have 2 Gib of Ram) ?
This depends on what you are going to do. (I also have 2GB RAM)
And when I open a large image file (15MB jpg file) in Gimp, ~ 50MB of the 2GB remains free.
This can be monitored in System > KInfoCenter > Memory. (or use widget System Load Viewer)
And when I am going to do some manipulation ( and for instance start Firefox at the same time or some other stuff), it's highly likely that some swap space is going to be used.
2) If I need it should it be as big as the Ram ?
So it's very difficult to give a 100% good answer on this subject.
3) If I have to alter it can I do so without losing any files ?
You can change the partitioning without losing any files.But there is always a change that things will go wrong
There is NO guarantee.
4) Should I Increase the Root size ?
Increasing the Root - 16.39 GiB doesn't make much sense.
Changing the partitioning can be done with the Partition Editor (=GParted 0.7.0) of Parted Magic 5.7
To change the partitioning, the disk (affected partitions) shouldn't be active.
And to achieve this non-active disk, boot the computer from an USB (or CD) version of Parted Magic 5.7 and use the Partition Editor.